Identification of Isoflavonoid

Isoflavones are found in dried fruits, in particular soya is believed to have estrogenic properties, anticancer, antiosteoporoisitik, antioksidan.Pada processed soy isoflavone-containing compounds, that is to say have a temperature aktivitasantioksidan and anti-haemolytic, these compounds are called by a factor of 2, genisten, and daidzein.Isoflavon are flavonoids which act as phytoestrogens are very useful for the health. Flavonoids and isoflavonoida is one satugolongan secondary metabolites are found in many plants, in particular by groups Leguminoceae (butterflies flower plants). The content of flavonoid compounds in the plant itself is very low, approximately 0.25%. These compounds are generally in keadaanterikat / conjugated with sugars.Isoflavones are compounds that many secondary metabolites synthesized by the plants. However, it is not so metabolitsekunder as compounds because these compounds are not synthesized by microorganisms. Dengandemikian, microorganisms do not have the content of these compounds. For karenaitu, plants are the main source of isoflavones compounds in nature. Of the different types of crops, high content of isoflavones contained in tanamanLeguminoceae, especially in soybean plants. In soybean, a higher content of isoflavones present in soy, especially in hipokotil (germ) that will grow into plants. Some lagiterdapat the cotyledons which will be the first leaf of the plant.These compounds isoflavones generally form complex compounds or conjugated sugar dengansenyawa through glucoside bond. This type of compound terutamaadalah isoflavones genistein, daidzin and glisitin. This form of such compounds mempunyaiaktivitas physiological small.During the process, either through a process of fermentation and prosesnon-fermentation, isoflavone compounds may undergo, hydrolysis process terutamamelalui so that it can be obtained free yangdisebut compounds isoflavone aglycone of greater activity. The adalahgenistein aglycone compounds, glisitein and daidzein

Isolation of Cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamon

Commercial cinnamon consists of dried, ground bark from the cinnamon tree, and contains about 2% cinnamaldehyde, which is responsible for its distinct flavor and odor.

The isolation will be accomplished by steam distillation. This means that the solid cinnamon will be boiled in water, and the steam will be condensed and collected. Since cinnamaldehyde is soluble in steam (but not in water), it will be carried up with the distillate and form a finely distributed emulsion, which will appear milky upon cooling. Many other essential oils can be isolated in this way – anisole from anise, camphene from nutmeg, carvone from caraway and spearmint, cuminaldehyde from cumin, eugenol from cloves, safrole from sassafras, and limonene from citrus peel.
A common way of isolating cinnamonoil along with cinnamaldehyde fromcinnamon bark, even in industrial scale, isthrough steam distillation. The cinnamon oilisolated through steam distillation containsroughly around 90% trans-cinnamaldehyde.Cinnamaldehyde contains a formylgroup, and is therefore an aldehyde. Itsstructure has a phenyl group attached to an
unsaturated aldehyde. It named throughIUPAC nomenclature as 3-phenyl-2-Propenal.The experiment aimed to isolatecinnamon oil from cinnamon bark by steamdistillation. From cinnamon oil,cinnamaldehyde could be extracted bymultiple extractions using DCM as a solvent,through aqueous dispersion. In theexperiment done, cinnemaldehyde wasanalyzed by subjecting it to Tollen’s test andPhenylhydrazone test, both of which test forthe presence of aldehydes

Steam distillation of the cinnamon:
• Obtain a 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask with a 14/20 ground glass joint from the instructor.
• Add 15 ml of distilled water, 2 drops of Triton X-100 (a surfactant which reduces
foaming), 2.0 g of cinnamon, and a long stir bar.
• Attach a Hickman still to the flask, then top it with a reflux condenser. Attach the reflux
condenser to the water hoses and turn on the water. Insulate the top of the flask below the
neck of the still with aluminum foil.
• Turn on the stirrer and begin to heat the cinnamon mixture slowly until it begins to boil.
• If it foams up into the still, you are heating too quickly – if the foam gets into the lip of
the still, you'll have to take it off and clean it before continuing.
• Remove the distillate with a pipet as it collects and place it in a beaker or flask.
• If, after collecting some distillate, the still begins to look dry, add up to 1 ml of water (no
more!). Try not to bake the cinnamon onto the glassware, as it is hard to clean out.
• You should collect about 5 ml of distillate; once it no longer turns milky on cooling, most
of the cinnamaldehyde has been removed.
Isolation of the cinnamaldehyde from the distillate:
• Place a sep funnel on the clamp and put a beaker underneath it. After making sure the
stopcock is closed, transfer the distillate to the sep funnel.
• Extract it by adding about 5-10 ml of dichloromethane, shaking, allowing it to separate,
and draining off the dichloromethane.
• Repeat two more times, combining all of the dichloromethane layers that you drain off.
Don't throw away anything until you are sure you have what you want!
• Dry the dichloromethane solution by adding sodium sulfate until it is free flowing.
• Transfer the solution to a tared (preweighed) round bottom flask and rinse the solid
sodium sulfate with a little more dichloromethane. Evaporate the solution on the rotovap.
• Observe the product that you have obtained and record your observation. Authentic
cinnamaldehyde is a clear, slightly yellow liquid with a strong odor of cinnamon.
• When the flask is cool, obtain the mass of the cinnamon oil that you have extracted.
Calculate the % recovery of cinnamaldehyde.
• Discuss the odor, appearance, mass, and percent recovery of the cinnamaldehyde in your


What is flavonoid?
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their colour in nature) are a class of plant secondary metabolites. Flavonoids are compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Their dietary intake is quite high compared to other dietary antioxidants like vitamins C and E. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on their molecular structure, and structural characteristics of certain flavonoids found in hops and beer confer surprisingly potent antioxidant activity exceeding that of red wine, tea, or soy.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids), also collectively known as Vitamin P and citrin, are a class of plant secondary metabolism. According to the IUPAC nomenclature, they can be classified into:
  • ''flavonoids'', derived from 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure (examples: quercetin, rutin).
  • ''isoflavonoids'', derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure
  • ''neoflavonoids'', derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone) structure.
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The three flavonoid classes above are all ketone-containing compounds, and as such, are flavonoids and flavonols. This class was the first to be termed "bioflavonoids." The terms flavonoid and bioflavonoid have also been more loosely used to describe non-ketone polyhydroxy polyphenol compounds which are more specifically termed flavanoids, flavan-3-ols, or catechins (although catechins are actually a subgroup of flavanoids).
Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants fulfilling many functions.
Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals.
Flavonoids secreted by the root of their host plant help ''Rhizobia'' in the infection stage of their symbiotic relationship with legumes like peas, beans, clover, and soy. Rhizobia living in soil are able to sense the flavonoids and this triggers the secretion of Nod factors, which in turn are recognized by the host plant and can lead to root hair deformation and several cellular responses such as ion fluxes and the formation of a root nodule.
They also protect plants from attacks by microbes, fungi and insects.
Flavonoids (specifically flavanoids such as the catechins) are "the most common group of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and are found ubiquitously in plants". Flavonols, the original bioflavonoids such as quercetin, are also found ubiquitously, but in lesser quantities. Both sets of compounds have evidence of health-modulating effects in animals which eat them.
The widespread distribution of flavonoids, their variety and their relatively low toxicity compared to other active plant compounds (for instance alkaloids) mean that many animals, including humans, ingest significant quantities in their diet. Resulting from experimental evidence that they may modify allergens, viruses, and carcinogens, flavonoids have potential to be biological "response modifiers", such as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities shown from in vitro studies.
Antioxidant activity in vitro
Flavonoids (both flavonols and flavanols) are most commonly known for their antioxidant activity in vitro.
Consumers and food manufacturers have become interested in flavonoids for their possible medicinal properties, especially their putative role in prevention of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Although physiological evidence is not yet established, the beneficial effects of fruits, vegetables, and tea or even red wine have sometimes been attributed to flavonoid compounds rather than to known micronutrients, such as vitamins and dietary minerals.
Alternatively, research conducted at the Linus Pauling Institute and evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority indicates that, following dietary intake, flavonoids themselves are of little or no direct antioxidant value. As body conditions are unlike controlled test tube conditions, flavonoids and other polyphenols are poorly absorbed (less than 5%), with most of what is absorbed being quickly metabolized and excreted.
The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods is not caused directly by flavonoids themselves, but most likely is due to increased uric acid levels that result from metabolism of flavonoids. According to Frei, "we can now follow the activity of flavonoids in the body, and one thing that is clear is that the body sees them as foreign compounds and is trying to get rid of them."
Other potential health benefits
Physiological processing of unwanted flavonoid compounds induces so-called Phase II enzymes that also help to eliminate mutagens and carcinogens, and therefore may be of value in cancer prevention. Flavonoids could also induce mechanisms that may kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor invasion.
Research also indicated that only small amounts of flavonoids may be needed for possible benefits. Taking large dietary supplements likely provides no extra benefit and may pose risks. However, certainty of neither a benefit nor a risk has been proven yet in large-scale human intervention trials.
Capillary stabilizing agents
Bioflavonoids like rutin, monoxerutin, diosmin, troxerutin and hidrosmin have potential vasoprotective proprieties still under experimental evaluation.

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